Listeria Monocytogenes

Listeria monocytogenes, also known as Listeria, is a facultative anaerobic bacterium and is the pathogen of Listeria monocytogenes. It mainly uses food as a vector and is one of the most deadly foodborne pathogens, causing 20 to 30% of infected people to die1.

Listeria causes approximately 2,500 cases and 500 deaths each year in the United States. Listeria is the main cause of death, and its fatality rate is even higher than Salmonella and Botox. Listeria infection can cause a range of symptoms including: pneumonia, fever, sore throat, diarrhea, general pain, meningitis, septicaemia, and death in severe cases. Listeria infections mostly occur in newborn babies, the elderly, the physically and mentally disabled, and the immunocompromised. Listeria infections in pregnant women can cause miscarriages and stillbirths.


1. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 40:4-13.

Salmonella Typhimurium

Salmonella enterica is a group of nonadaptive or pan-tropical Salmonella with a wide range of hosts, and it is one of the most isolated strains in various countries in the world. The bacterium can cause a variety of infectious diseases of poultry and mammals, and can also cause human infection, which has important public health significance.

Salmonella typhimurium, an important member of Salmonella enterica, is one of the main pathogens that cause acute gastroenteritis.